Engineering Thermodynamics - Detailed Content

Engineering Thermodynamics - Detailed Content

 

Preface ... (v)
Syllabus ... (vi)

1 Introduction
1.1 Brief Historical Review ... 1.1
1.2 Scope of Thermodynamics ... 1.2
1.3 Concept of Continuum ... 1.3
1.4 Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches ... 1.4
1.5 System, Surroundings, Environment and Boundary ... 1.5
1.6 Classification of Thermodynamic Systems ... 1.6
1.7 Classification of Thermodynamic Boundaries ... 1.8
1.8 Universe ... 1.9
1.9 Limitations of Engineering Thermodynamics ... 1.10
      Solved Examples ... 1.10
      Review Questions ... 1.12
      Review Examples ... 1.13

2 Thermodynamic Quantities
2.1 Introduction ... 2.1
2.2 Thermodynamic Property ... 2.1
2.3 Point Function ... 2.2
2.4 Path Function ... 2.2
2.5 Extensive and Intensive Quantities ... 2.3
2.6 Total and Specific Quantities ... 2.3
Solved Examples ... 2.4
Review Questions ... 2.5

3. Pressure, Temperature and Volume
3.1 Introduction ... 3.1
3.2 Pressure ... 3.1
3.3 Standard Atmospheric Pressure ... 3.1
3.4 Atmospheric, Absolute, Gauge and Vacuum Pressures ... 3.2
3.5 Molecular interpretation of Pressure ... 3.3
3.6 Temperature ... 3.4
3.7 Comparison of Temperature Scales ... 3.4
3.8 Molecular Interpretation of Temperature ... 3.5
3.9 Volume and Specific Volume ... 3.6
3.10 Density ... 3.6
3.11 Specific Gravity ... 3.7
Solved Examples ... 3.7
Review Questions ... 3.10
Review Examples ... 3.10

4. Thermodynamic Equilibrium
4.1 Introduction ... 4.1
4.2 Thermal Equilibrium ... 4.1
4.3 Chemical Equilibrium ... 4.1
4.4 Mechanical Equilibrium ... 4.2
4.5 Phase Equilibrium ... 4.2
4.6 Thermodynamic Equilibrium ... 4.2
Solved Examples ... 4.1
Review Questions ... 4.4

5. State, Process and Cycle
5.1 Introduction ... 5.1
5.2 State ... 5.1
5.3 Process ... 5.2
5.4 Cycle ... 5.2
5.5 Quasistatic Process ... 5.2
5.6 Types of Processes ... 5.4
5.7 Types of Processes based on Extent of Reversibleness ... 5.4
5.8 Types of Processes based on Process Index ... 5.6
5.9 Types of Processes based on Pressure and Volume Changes ... 5.8
Solved Examples ... 5.8
Review Questions ... 5.10

6. Energy
6.1 Introduction ... 6.1
6.2 Energy ... 6.1
6.3 Forms and Types of Energy ... 6.1
6.4 Macroscopic Energy ... 6.2
6.5 Microscopic Energy ... 6.3
6.6 Energy in Transition ... 6.3
6.7 Internal Energy ... 6.3
6.8 Stored Energy ... 6.4
6.9 Enthalpy ... 6.5
Solved Examples ... 6.5
Review Questions ... 6.6
Review Examples ... 6.7

7. Ideal Gas Laws
7.1 Introduction ... 7.1
7.2 Ideal Gas ... 7.1
7.3 Charles’ law ... 7.2
7.4 Gay-Lussac’s Law ... 7.2
7.5 Boyle’s Law ... 7.2
7.6 Joule’s Law ... 7.3
7.7 Avogedro’s Law ... 7.3
7.8 Universal Gas Constant ... 7.3
7.9 Ideal Gas Equation ... 7.4
7.10 Pure Substance ... 7.6
7.11 State Postulate ... 7.6
7.12 Two Property Rule ... 7.6
Solved Examples ... 7.7
Review Questions ... 7.9
Review Examples ... 7.10

8. Heat and Work Transfer
8.1 Introduction ... 8.1
8.2 Heat Transfer ... 8.1
8.3 General Equation for Heat Transfer ... 8.3
8.4 Sign Convention for Heat Transfer ... 8.2
8.5 Specific Heat ... 8.3
8.6 Heat Capacity ... 8.3
8.7 Molar Specific Heat ... 8.4
8.8 Latent Heat ... 8.4
8.9 Work Transfer ... 8.4
8.10 Units of Work Transfer ... 8.5
8.11 Sign Convention for Work Transfer ... 8.5
8.12 Comparison between Heat and Work Transfer ... 8.6
8.13 Boundary or Displacement Work in a Reversible Process ... 8.6
8.14 p –V Diagram ... 8.7
8.15 Work – A Path Function ... 8.8
8.16 Free Expansion ... 8.9
8.17 Modes of Work Transfer ... 8.11
8.18 Net Work Transfer ... 8.14
8.19 Indicator Diagram ... 8.14
Solved Examples ... 8.17
Review Questions ... 8.23
Review Examples ... 8.25

9. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
9.1 Introduction ... 9.1
9.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics ... 9.1
9.3 Temperature and Thermodynamic Property ... 9.2
9.4 Relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales ... 9.3
9.5 Celsius and Absolute Temperature Scale ... 9.3
9.6 Design of a New Temperature Scale ... 9.4
Solved Examples ... 9.4
Review Questions ... 9.7
Review Examples ... 9.7

10. First Law of Thermodynamics
10.1. Introduction ... 10.1
10.2 Joule’s Experiments ... 10.1
10.3 First Law for a Cycle of a Closed System ... 10.2
10.4 First Law for a Process of a Closed System ... 10.3
10.5 Internal Energy - a Property ... 10.3
10.6 Perpetual Motion Machine of First Kind (PMM - I) ... 10.5
10.7 Corollaries of First Law ... 10.5
10.8 Limitations of First law of Thermodynamics ... 10.6
Solved Examples ... 10.6
Review Questions ... 10.12
Review Examples ... 10.13

11. First Law Applied to Non-flow Processes
11.1 Introduction ... 11.1
11.2 Constant Pressure Process ... 11.1
11.3 Constant Volume Process ... 11.3
11.4 Relationship between Specific Heats ... 11.5
11.5 Isothermal Process ... 11.6
11.6 Adiabatic Process ... 11.8
11.7 Polytropic Process ... 11.11
Solved Examples ... 11.14
Review Questions ... 11.31
Review Examples ... 11.31

12. First Law Applied to Open Systems – Steady Flow Type
12.1 Introduction ... 12.1
12.2 Control volume ... 12.1
12.3 Types of Open Systems ... 12.2
12.4 Steady State Steady Flow Systems ... 12.3
12.5 Steady State Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE) ... 12.3
12.6 Applications of SFEE ... 12.6
12.7 Comparison of SFEE with Euler and Bernoulli Equation ... 12.11
12.8 Shaft Work for Specific Steady Flow Systems ... 12.12
12.9 SFEE for an Open System withMultiple Inlets and Outlets 12.14
Solved Examples ... 12.16
Review Questions ... 12.29
Review Examples ... 12.30

13. First Law Applied to Open Systems – Unsteady Flow Type
13.1 Introduction ... 13.1
13.2 Applications of USFEE ... 13.4
13.3 USFEE for Open System with Boundary Work ... 13.8
Solved Examples ... 13.8
Review Questions ... 13.14
Review Examples ... 13.14

14. Second Law of Thermodynamics
14.1 Introduction ... 14.1
14.2 Need for the Second Law of Thermodynamics ... 14.1
14.3 Heat Reservoir ... 14.2
14.4 Heat Engine ... 14.2
14.5 Heat Pump ... 14.3
14.6 Refrigerator ... 14.4
14.7 Second Law of Thermodynamics ... 14.4
14.8 Equivalence of KPS with CS ... 14.6
14.9 Equivalence of CS with KPS ... 14.7
14.10 Carnot Cycle ... 14.8
14.11 Reversed Carnot Cycle ... 14.12
14.12 Reversibility and Irreversibility ... 14.14
14.13 Irreversibleness and Second Law ... 14.15
14.14 Conditions for Reversibility ... 14.16
Solved Examples ... 14.16
Review Questions ... 14.23
Review Examples ... 14.25

15. Corollaries of Second Law of Thermodynamics
15.1 Introduction ... 15.1
15.2 Carnot theorem ... 15.1
15.3 Absolute Temperature Scale ... 15.2
15.4 Heat as Thermometric Property ... 15.5
15.5 Unattainability of Zero on Absolute Temperature Scale ... 15.5
15.6 Third Law of Thermodynamics ... 15.7
15.7 Ideal Gas Temperature and Kelvin Temperature ... 15.8
15.8 Clausius Inequality ... 15.8
15.8 Clausius Theorem ... 15.10
Solved Examples ... 15.11
Review Questions ... 15.25
Review Examples ... 15.26

16. Entropy
16.1 Introduction ... 16.1
16.2 Identification of a Property - Entropy ... 16.1
16.3 Significance of Entropy ... 16.1
16.4 Definition of Entropy Change ... 16.2
16.5 T - S diagram and Heat Transfer ... 16.3
16.6 Heat Transfer is a Path Function : A Proof ... 16.3
16.7 Entropy is a Thermodynamic Property : A Proof ... 16.4
16.8 Combined I and II Law ... 16.6
16.9 Change in Entropy for a Process in a Closed System ... 16.7
16.10 Simplified Relation for ?S for Different Processes ... 16.9
16.11 Carnot Cycle on the T - S Diagram ... 16.15
16.12 Entropy Change in a Irreversible Process ... 16.16
16.13 Principle of Increase of Entropy ... 16.18
16.14 Molecular Interpretation of Entropy ... 16.21
16.15 Entropy Generation in a Closed System ... 16.21
16.16 Entropy Generation in a OpenSystem ... 16.24
Solved Examples ... 16.25
Review Questions ... 16.50
Review Examples ... 16.50

17. Applications of Second Law
17.1 Introduction ... 17.1
17.2 Thermodynamic Advantages of Domestic Heating ... 17.1
17.3 Heat pumps operating in Series ... 17.4
17.4 Refrigerators operating in Series ... 17.6
17.5 Maximum Work from a Finite Source and Sink ... 17.6
17.6 Minimum Work Required for a Refrigerator ... 17.8
17.7 Minimum Work Required for a Heat Pump ... 17.11
17.8 Mixing of Fluids ... 17.12
17.9 Maximum Work from a Finite Body ... 17.14
17.10 Entropy Change during Isothermal Dissipation of Work ... 17.16
17.11 Entropy Change during Adiabatic Dissipation of Work ... 17.17
Solved Examples ... 17.18
Review Questions ... 17.24
Review Examples ... 17.25

18. Available Energy, Availability and Irreversibility
18.1 Introduction ... 18.1
18.2 Dead State ... 18.1
18.3 Available and Unavailable Energy ... 18.2
18.4 Availability ... 18.5
18.5 Availability of a Process in a Closed System ... 18.6
18.6 Availability of a Process in a Steady Flow System ... 18.9
18.7 Irreversibility ... 18.13
18.8 Law of Degradation of Energy ... 18.16
18.9 Maximum Work done by a General System ... 18.17
18.10 Maximum Useful Work (Availability) by a General System ... 18.124
18.11 System Exchanging Heat with the Thermal Reservoir ... 18.26
18.12 Availability in Chemical Reactions ... 18.27
18.13 Irreversibility and Gouy - Stodola Theorem ... 18.29
Solved Examples ... 18.29
Review Questions ... 18.46
Review Examples ... 18.47

19. Exergy and Irreversibility Analysis
19.1 Introduction ... 19.1
19.2 Exergy Analysis of a Closed System ... 19.1
19.3 Exergy Analysis of a Steady Flow System ... 19.3
19.4 Entropy Generation Number ... 19.4
19.5 Exergy Analysis for Flow with Friction ... 19.5
19.6 Exergy Analysis for Mixing of Fluids ... 19.6
Solved Examples ... 19.9
Review Questions ... 19.16
Review Examples ... 19.16

20. I and II Law Efficiency Analysis
20.1 Introduction ... 20.1
20.2 First Law Efficiency ... 20.1
20.3 Second Law Efficiency ... 20.2
20.4 Heat Pump ... 20.3
20.5 Refrigerator operated by Motor or Engine ... 20.3
20.6 Refrigerator operated by Heat Energy ... 20.6
20.7 Solar Water Heater ... 20.7
20.8 Combustion Chamber ... 20.9
20.9 Gas Turbine ... 20.10
20.10 Gas Compressor ... 20.12
20.11 Heat Exchanger ... 20.13
20.12 Mixing of Two Fluids ... 20.14
Solved Examples ... 20.15
Review Questions ... 20.30
Review Examples ... 20.31

21. Properties of Pure Substances
21.1 Introduction ... 21.1
21.2 Phase Rule ... 21.2
21.3 Steam Formation ... 21.2
21.4 Temperature – Entropy Diagram ... 21.8
21.5 Enthalpy – Entropy Diagram ... 21.9
21.6 Pressure – Volume Diagram ... 21.10
21.7 Dryness Fraction ... 21.11
21.8 Steam Tables ... 21.11
21.9 Properties of Water ... 21.12
21.10 Properties of Steam ... 21.13
21.11 Temperature – Specific Volume Diagram ... 21.16
21.12 Pressure – Specific Volume Diagram ... 21.17
21.13 Pressure – Temperature Diagram ... 21.17
21.14 The p – v – T Surface ... 21.21
21.15 Determination of Dryness Fraction ... 21.24
Solved Examples ... 21.28
Review Questions ... 21.62
Review Examples ... 21.63

22. Vapour Power Cycles
22.1 Introduction ... 22.1
22.2 Carnot Vapour Power Cycle ... 22.1
22.3 Simple Rankine Cycle ... 22.3
22.4 Comparison of Rankine Cycle with Carnot Cycle ... 22.9
22.5 Actual Simple Rankine Cycle ... 22.10
22.6 Methods for Improving Performance of Rankine Cycle ... 22.14
22.7 Rankine Cycle with Super Heated Steam ... 22.15
22.8 Rankine Cycle with High Boiler Pressure ... 22.17
22.9 Rankine Cycle with High Boiler Pressure and High Temp.Steam ... 22.18
22.10 Rankine Cycle with Low Condenser Pressure ... 22.19
22.11 Reheat Rankine Cycle ... 22.27
22.12 Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle ... 22.44
22.13 Rankine Cycle with Open Feed Water Heater ... 22.45
22.14 Rankine Cycle with Open Feed Water Heater ... 22.59
22.15 Rankine Cycle with Closed Feed Water Heater ... 22.65
22.16 Economiser ... 22.70
22.17 Air Preheater ... 22.71
22.18 Binary Cycle ... 22.71
22.19 Combined Cycle ... 22.73
Solved Examples ... 22.74
Review Questions ... 22.104
Review Examples ... 22.105

23. Ideal Gas Properties
23.1 Introduction ... 23.1
23.2 Ideal Gas ... 23.1
23.3 Internal energy of an Ideal Gas ... 23.3
23.4 Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas ... 23.7
23.5 Specific heat of an Ideal gas at Constant Volume ... 23.8
23.6 Specific heat of an Ideal gas at Constant Pressure ... 23.8
23.7 Calculation of Specific Heats from Kinetic Theory ... 23.9
Review Questions ... 23.11


24. Real Gases
24.1 Introduction ... 24.1
24.2 Van der Waals Equation of State for Real Gases ... 24.1
24.3 Reduced Properties ... 24.3
24.4 Van der Waals Equation of State in Reduced Form ... 24.3
24.5 Other Two Constant Equations of State for Real Gases ... 24.8
24.6 Multi - Constant Equations of State for Real Gases ... 24.9
24.7 Compressibility Factor ... 24.10
24.8 Principle of Corresponding States ... 24.12
24.9 Generalised Compressibility Chart ... 24.13
Solved Examples ... 24.15
Review Questions ... 24.18

25. Gas Mixtures
25.1 Introduction ... 25.1
25.2 Mole Fraction and Mass Fraction ... 25.1
25.3 Partial Pressure and Partial Volume ... 25.3
25.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure ... 25.4
25.5 Amagat’s Law of Partial Volumes ... 25.4
25.6 Molar Mass of a Gas Mixture ... 25.5
25.7 Gas Constant of a Gas Mixture ... 25.6
25.8 Density of a Gas Mixture ... 25.7
25.9 Specific Internal Energy, Enthalpy and Specific Heats ... 25.7
25.10 Entropy Change during Mixing of Gases ... 25.13
25.11 Gibb’s Function Change during Mixing of Gases ... 25.15
Solved Examples ... 25.16
Review Questions ... 25.24
Review Examples ... 25.25

26. Psychrometrics
26.1 Introduction ... 26.1
26.2 Psychrometric Terminology ... 26.1
26.3 Psychrometric Chart ... 26.7
26.4 Enthalpy of Air per kg of Dry Air ... 26.9
26.5 Psychrometric Processes ... 26.10
26.6 Adiabatic Saturation Process ... 26.11
26.7 Sensible Heating Process ... 26.14
26.8 Sensible Cooling Process ... 26.16
26.9 Humidification Process ... 26.17
26.10 Dehumidification Process ... 26.18
26.11 Cooling and Dehumidification Process ... 26.19
26.12 Heating and Dehumidification Process ... 26.21
26.13 Evaporative Cooling Process ... 26.22
26.14 Adiabatic Mixing of Two Steams ... 26.24
Solved Examples ... 26.25
Review Questions ... 26.58
Review Examples ... 26.59

27. Thermodynamic Relations
27.1 Introduction ... 27.1
27.2 Some Important Mathematical Theorems ... 27.1
27.3 Some Important Definitions ... 27.2
27.4 Maxwell’s Relations ... 27.3
27.5 General Entropy Equations (Tds Equations) ... 27.5
27.6 Difference in Heat Capacities and Specific Heat Capacities ... 27.8
27.7 Ratio of Heat Capacities or Specific Heat Capacities ... 27.112
27.8 Energy Equation ... 27.14
27.9 Joule - Thomson Experiment ... 27.15
27.10 Phase Change Process ... 27.18
27.11 Clausius – Clapeyron Equation for a Phase Change Process ... 27.20
Solved Examples ... 27.25
Review Questions ... 27.34
Review Examples ... 27.34

Appendices
Thermodynamic Tables and Chart

Previous Year Anna University Question Papers with Solution ... A 1.1 - A 1.15
Model Short Questions ... A 2.1 - A 2.8
Model Question Paper with Solution ... A 3.1 - A 3.3
Index ... A 4.1 - A 4.7
Formulae Table ... A 5.1 - A 5.3