Engineering Thermodynamics - Index the Book

Engineering Thermodynamics - Index the Book

Absolute humidity, 26.3
Absolute pressure, 3.2
Absolute temperature scale, 3.5, 9.3, 15.2
unattainability of zero,15.5
Acentric factor, 24.10
Adiabatic mixing, 26.24
Adiabatic process, 5.8, 11.8
Adiabatic saturation process, 26.11
Adiabatic wall, 1.9
Air compressor, 12.9
Air-conditioning, 26.19, 26.21
Air preheater, 22.71
Amagat's law, 25.4
Anergy, 18.6
Atmospheric air, 25.1
Availability, 18.5,
      in a chemical reaction, 18.27
      in a closed system, 18.6
      in a steady flow system, 18.9
Available energy, 18.2
      of a finite body,18.4
      of a source, 18.2
Avogadro's law, 7.3

Bar, 19
Beattie-Bridgeman eqn. of state, 24.9
Bernoulli equation, 12.11
Berthelot equation of state, 24.8
Binary vapour power cycle, 22.71
Boiling, 21.1
Boundary, 1.6
      fixed, 1.8
      imaginary, 1.8
      moving, 1.8
      phenomenon, 8.6
      real, 1.8
types, 1.8
Boyles law, 7.2
Bulk modulus, 27.2

Caloric theory of heat, 10.1
Carnot cycle, 14.8
      performance, 14.10
      reversed, 14.12
Celsius scale, 3.4, 3.5
Carnot theorem, 15.1
Clausius-Clapeyroneqn., 22.20
Combustion chamber, 20.9
Compressibility chart, 24.19
Compressibility factor, 24.20
Compressor, 12.9
Concept of
      continuum, 1.3
      entropy, 16.1
      temperature, 3.4
Condensation, 21.1
Constant
      characteristic gas, 7.3
      pressure process, 11.1
      temperature process, 11.6
      universal gas, 7.3
      volume process, 11.3
Continuum, 1.3
Control mass, 1.6, 12.1
Control mass analysis, 11.1
Control surface,1.7, 12.1
Control volume, 12.1
Control volume analysis, 12.1
Cooling towers, 26.23
Corollaries of
      first law, 10.5
      second law, 15.1
Critical constants, 21.8
Critical point, 21.7
Critical pressure, 21.7
Critical state, 21.7
Critical temperature, 21.7
Cycle, 5.2

Dalton's law, 25.5
Dead state, 18.1
Degree of saturation, 26.4
Degree of superheat, 21.31, 22.29
Degrees of freedom, 21.2, 23.9
Dehumidification, 26.18
Density, 3.6
Dew point temperature, 26.6
Diathermic wall, 1.9
Diffuser, 12.7
Discharging of a cylinder, 13.6
Displacement work, 8.6
Domestic heating, 17.1
Dry air, 26.1
Dry bulb temperature, 26.5
Dryness fraction, 21.1
      determination, 21.24

Economiser, 22.70
Efficiency,
      Carnot cycle, 14.10
      first law, 20.1
      heat engine, 154
      relative, 14.2
      second law, 14.5
Energy, 6.1
      available , 18.2
      density, 27.14
      equation, 27.14
      forms, 6.1
      high grade, 8.6, 10.6, 14.1, 18.1
      internal, 6.3
      low grade, 10.6, 14.1, 18.1
      macroscopic, 6.2
      mechanical, 6.4
      microscopic, 6.3
      stored, 6.4
      total, 6.1
      transition, 6.3
      types, 6.2
      unavailable, 18.2
Energy balance, 12.15, 13.1
Energy equation, 27.14
Engineering thermodynamics, 1.2
Enthalpy, 6.5
Enthalpy-entropy diagram, 21.9
Entropy, 16.1
      generation, 16.21
      generation No, 19.4
      increase, 16.18
      molecular interpretation, 16.21
      principle, 16.18
      property, 16.4
      relation, 16.7
      significance, 16.1
Entropy change, 16.2
      adiabatic dissipation, 16.13, 17.17
      in isobaric process, 16.9
      in isochoric process, 16.10
      in isothermal process, 16.12
      in irreversible process, 16.16
      inpolytropic process, 16.14
      in reversible process, 16.16
      in terms of p and V, 16.9
      in terms of T and p, 16.25
      in terms of T and V, 16.7
      isothermal dissipation, 17.16
Environment, 1.5
Equations of state, 7.4, 8.2, 23.2, 24.1
Equilibrium, 4.1
      chemical, 4.1
      mechanical, 4.2
      phase, 4.2
      thermal, 4.1
      thermodynamic, 4.2
Euler equation, 12.11
Evaporation, 21.1
Evaporative cooling, 26.22
Exact differential, 2.1
Exergy, 18.6
Exergy analysis, 119.1 - 19.99
      for flow with friction, 19.5
      for mixing of fluids, 19.6
      of a closed system, 19.1
      ofa open system, 19.3
Extensive quantity, 2.3

Fahrenheit scale, 3.4, 3.5
First law analysis, 11.1, 12.1
First law of thermodynamics, 10.2
      applied to non flow processes, 11.1
      applied to open systems, 12.1
      combined, 16.6
      corollaries, 10.5
      efficiency, 20.1
      closed system cycle, 10.2
      closed system process, 10.2
Fowler-Guggenheim statement, 15.8
Free expansion of a gas, 8.9
Freezing, 21.1
Fusion curve, 21.17
Fusion process, 21.3
Gauge pressure, 3.2
Gas laws, 7.2
Gas mixtures, 25.1
      density, 25.7
      enthalpy, 25.7
      entropy change, 25.13
      gas constant, 25.6
      gibbs function change, 25.15
      internal energy, 25.7
      molar mass, 25.5
      properties, 476
      difference, 25.9
      ratio, 25.8, 25.9
      specific heat, 25.7
Gay Lussac law, 7.2
Gas turbine, 12.9
Generalized compressibility chart, 24.19
Gibb's free energy function, 18.3
Gibb's function change, 27.4
Gibb's phase rule, 21.2
Gouy - stodola theorem, 18.29

Heat, 8.1
Heat capacities, 8.3
      difference, 27.9
      ratio, 27.12
Heat engine, 14.2
Heat exchanger, 20.13
Heat pump, 14.3
      first law efficiency, 20.9
      in series, 17.4
      minimum work, 17.11
      second law efficiency, 20.4
Heat rate, 22.7
Heat reservoir, 14.4
Heat transfer, 8.1
      path function, 16.3
Helmholtz function, 18.9
Heterogeneous system, 1.8
Homogeneous system, 1.7
Humidification , 26.17
Humidity ratio, 26.2
Hyperbolic process, 5.7, 11.6

I and II law efficiency, 14.5, 20.1
Ice point, 3.4, 3.5
Ideal gas, 23.1
      comparison, 23.1
      enthalpy, 23.7
      internal energy, 23.2
      properties, 23.1
      specific heat, 23.8
Ideal gas equation , 23.2
Ideal gas law, 7.4
Indicator diagram, 8.14
Indicator power, 8.16
Intensive quantity, 2.3
Internal energy, 6.3
Inversion curve, 27.16
Inversion point, 27.16
Irreversibility, 5.5, 18.13
      in a non flow process, 18.14
      in a steady flow process, 18.15
Irreversible processes, 5.6
      entropy change, 16.16
Isenthalpic curve, 12.9
Isentropic process, 16.13
Isobaric process, 5.6, 11.1
Isochoric process, 5.6, 11.3
Isolated system, 1.7
Isometric process, 5.6, 11.3
Isopiestic process, 5.6, 11.2
Isothermal process, 5.4, 5.7, 11.6
Joule experiment, 27.15
Joule's law, 7.3
Joule-Thompson coefficient, 27.16
Joule-Thompson experiment, 27.9

Kelvin, 9.3
Kelvin-Planck statement, 14.5
Kinetic energy, 6.2
Kinetic-molecular theory, 23.1, 23.9

Latent heat, 8.4
Latent heat of fusion, 21.3
Latent heat of vaporization, 21.5
Law of conservation of mass, 12.3
Law of corresponding states, 24.7, 24.12
Law of degradation of energy, 6.1, 18.16
Law of hydrostatics, 3.3
Law of temperature, 9.2
Law of the lost work, 19.6
Limitation,
      Carnot engine, 14.11, 22.3

Macroscopic approach, 1.4
Macroscopic modes of energy, 6.2
Mass fraction, 25.2
Maximum useful work, 18.5
Maxwell relations, 27.4
Mean effective pressure, 8.15
Mechanical equilibrium, 4.2
Microscopic approach, 1.4
Microscopic modes of energy, 6.2
Mixing of fluids, 17.12
Modes of work, 8.11
Moist air, 26.1
Mole fraction, 25.1
Mollier diagram, 21.9

Non flow processes, 11.1
Non available energy, 18.2
Nozzle, 12.6

Open system, 1.6, 12.1

Paddle wheel, 8.11, 11.16
Paddle wheel work, 8.11
Partial pressure, 25.3
Partial volume, 25.3
Path, 5.2
Path function, 2.2
Perfect gas, 7.1
PMM - I, 10.5
PMM - II, 14.5
Phase, 20.1, 21.2
Phase change, 27.18
Phase diagram, 21.20
Phase rule, 21.2
Point function, 2.2
Polytropic process, 5.8, 11.11
Potential energy, 6.1, 6.2
Pressure, 3.1
      absolute, 3.2
      atmospheric, 3.1
      gauge, 3.2
      mean effective, 8.15
      molecular interpretation, 3.3
      vacuum, 3.2
Principle of conservation of energy, 6.1
Principle of corresponding states, 24.7
Principle of entropy increase, 16.18
Process, 5.2
      compression, 5.8
      expansion, 5.8
      irreversible, 5.6
      reversible, 5.4
      types, 5.4
      tank filling, 13.4
      tank discharging, 13.6
      quasistatic process, 5.3
Property,
      of air, 11.6
      thermometric, 15.5
Psychrometer, 26.6
Psychrometrics, 26.1
Psychrometric chart, 26.7
p - v diagram, 8.7
p - v - T surface, 21.2, 21.3
Pure substance, 7.6, 21.1
      properties, 21.1

Quasi-static process, 5.3

Rankine cycle, 22.1
      actual, 22.10
      ideal, 22.4
      methods for improvement, 22.15
      with closed feed water heater, 22.65
      with open feed water heater, 22.45
      with regeneration, 22.44
      with reheat, 22.27
Real gases, 24.1
      multi constant equation, 24.9
      two constants equation, 24.8
Redlich-Kwong equation of state, 24.8
Reduced equation of state, 456
Reduced pressure, 24.3
Reduced properties, 24.3
Reduced temperature, 24.3
Reduced volume, 24.3
Refrigerator, 14.4
      first law efficiency, 20.5
      in series, 17.6
      minimum work, 17.8
      second law efficiency, 20.5
Regenerative cycle, 22.44
Reheat cycle, 22.27
Relative humidity, 26.4
Reversed Carnot cycle, 14.12
Reversible adiabatic process, 11.8
Reversible process, 5.4
Reversibility, 14.14
      condition, 14.16
Reversibleness, 5.5

Saturated air, 26.3
Saturated liquid, 21.3
Saturated liquid line, 21.4
Saturated state, 21.3
Saturated steam, 21.13
Saturated vapor, 21.14
Saturated vapor line, 21.4
Saturation curve, 21.0
Saturation pressure, 21.12
Saturation temperature, 21.3
Scope, 1.1, 1.10
Second law analysis, 20.1
Second law of thermodynamics, 14.5
      applications, 17.1
      combined, 16.6
      efficiency, 20.1
      need, 14.1
      corollaries, 15.1
Sensible cooling process, 26.16
Sensible heating process, 26.14
Sensible heat factor, 26.21
SFEE, 11.1
      application, 12.6
Shaft work, 8.11
SHF, 26.21
Sign convention, 8.2, 8.5
Simple compressible system, 1.8
Sink, 14.2
Solar water heater, 20.7
Soldification, 21.1
Source, 14.2
Specific gravity, 3.7
Specific heat, 8.3
      difference, 27.8
      ratio, 27.12
      relation, 11.5
Specific heat at constant pressure, 8.3
Specific heat at constant volume, 8.3
Specific humidity, 26,2
Specific steam consumption, 22.6
Specific volume, 2.3, 3.6
Specific weight, 3.7
State, 5.1
State postulate, 7.6
Statistical thermodynamics, 1.4
Steady state, 12.2
Steady state flow processes, 12.3
Steam, 20.1
      formation, 20.1
      h - s diagram, 21.9
      p - T diagram,21.20
      p - v diagram, 21.18
      p - v - T surface, 21.22
      properties, 347
      T - s diagram, 21.4
      T - v diagram, 21.16, 21.18
Steam bleeding, 22.44
Steam extraction, 22.45
Steam formation, 22.1
Steam point, 3.4, 3.5
Steam rate, 22.6
Steam table, 21.11
Subcooled liquid, 21.5
Sublimation, 21.13
Sublimation curve, 21.3
Superheated steam, 21.14
Superheated vapour, 21.14
Surroundings, 1.5
System, 5
      classification, 1.6
      closed, 1.6
      heterogeneous, 1.8
      homogeneous, 7
      isolated, 1.7
      open, 1.6
      simple compressible, 1.88
      steady flow, 12.2
      unsteady flow, 12.2

T - ds equation, 27.5 Temperature, 3.4       molecular interpretation, 3.5
      scales, 3.5
Temperature-entropy diagram, 16.3
Temperature scale, 3.5
      new scale, 9.4
Thermal efficiency, 14.2
Thermal equilibrium, 4.2
Thermal reservoir, 14.2
Thermodynamic,
      advantage, 17.1
      multiplier, 17.1
Thermodynamic definition of work,8.4 Thermodynamic equilibrium, 4.2 Thermodynamic property, 2.1 Thermodynamic system, 1.5 Thermodynamic temperature scale, 15.2 Third law, 15.7 Throttling calorimeter, 21.24 Throttling process, 21.24 Ton of refrigeration, 14.4
T - s diagram, 16.3
Triple point, 321.7, 21.8
Turbine, 12.9
Two property rule, 7.6

Unattainability of zero kelvin, 15.5
Unavailable energy, 18.2
Universal gas constant, 7.3
Universe, 1.9
USFEE, 13.2
      application, 13.4

Vacuum, 3.2
Van der Waals equation of state, 24.2
      in reduced form, 24.7
Van der Waals gas, 24.1
Vapor power cycles, 22.1
Virial coefficients, 24.10
Volume fraction, 25.1

Wet-bulb temperature, 26.5
Work, 8.4
      boundary, 8.6
      displacement, 8.6
      elastic, 8.13
      electrical, 71
      flow, 8.12
      magentization, 8.13
      maximum, 18.2
      maximum useful, 18.5
      minimum, 17.8
      path function, 8.8
      shaft, 8.11
Work transfer, 8.4
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 9.1